fbpx

Typing in Latin

Since Ecclesiastical Latin uses the same 26 letters as modern English, any QWERT or AZERTY keyboard can be used to type in Latin. However, if one should like to use macrons or accents without using the symbols feature in a word processor, there are a few different things that can be done.

Table of Contents

Typing with Macrons

On Mac

Add the Māori keyboard to your system.

  1. Click on the Apple logo in the top left of your screen and choose System Preferences.
  2. Click Language & Region.
  3. Click Keyboard Preferences.
  4. Click the + icon and find Māori in the list.
  5. Click Add.
  6. Optionally, tick Show input menu in menu bar (this will make it easier to switch between languages/keyboards).

Then, you will simply need to press and hold the option key while typing the vowel that you want marked with a macron.

On Windows

Add the Māori keyboard to your system.
Then, you will simply need to press the tilde key (~) before typing the vowel that you want marked with a macron.

Typing with Accents and Ligatures

As of the publication of this page, neither Windows or Mac offer a keyboard or virtual keyboard that allows one to type the full gamut of accented Latin vowels with only a few keystrokes. Therefore, it is typically necessary to either use the symbols/special characters menu in a word processor (Microsoft Word, Google Docs, etc.) or use Unicode.

On Mac

To type Unicode characters on Mac, add the Unicode Hex Input virtual keyboard.

  1. Click on the Apple logo in the top left of your screen and choose System Preferences.
  2. Click Language & Region.
  3. Click Keyboard Preferences.
  4. Click the + icon and find Unicode Hex Input in the list.
  5. Click Add.
  6. Optionally, tick Show input menu in menu bar (this will make it easier to switch between languages/keyboards).

Then, you will simply need to press and hold the option key while typing the Unicode. For example, to type á, press and hold option + 00E1.

On Windows

To type Unicode characters in Windows, type the character code, then press the ALT key, and then press the X key. For example, to type á, the key sequence is 0, 0, E, 1, ALT, X.

Unicode Hex for Latin Characters

Capitals with Accents

  • Á: 00C1
  • É: 00C9
  • Í: 00CD
  • Ó: 00D3
  • Ú: 00DA
  • Ý: 00DD

Capitals with Macrons

  • Ā: 0100 (or A + 0304)
  • Ē: 00112
  • Ī: 012A
  • Ō: 014C
  • Ū: 016A
  • Ȳ: 0232

Ligatures

  • Æ: 00C6
  • æ: 00E6
  • Ǣ: 01E2
  • ǣ: 01E3
  • Ǽ: 01FC
  • ǽ: 01FD
  • Œ: 0152
  • œ: 0153
  • st: FB06

Minuscules with Accents

  • á: 00E1
  • é: 00E9
  • í: 00ED
  • ó: 00F3
  • ú: 00FA
  • ý: 00FD

Minuscules with Macrons

  • ā: 0101
  • ē: 0113
  • ī: 012B
  • ō: 014D
  • ū: 016B
  • ȳ: 0233

Other

  • ë: 00EB
  • ℟: 211F
  • ℣: 2123
  • m̃: m + 0303 (i.e. type “m” then use 0303 to add the tidle)
  • ñ: 00F1
  • «: 00AB
  • »: 00BB
  • § (section): 00A7 (MacOS: Option+6; Windows Alt+0167 or Alt+21)

Unicode Hex for Roman Numerals

Although it is generally sufficient to type Roman numerals using their corresponding Latin letters, the Unicode Ideographic Variation Database does have specific entries for a handful of Roman numerals. All other numbers can be formed using combinations of these numerals. Although usually slight, there are differences XII (letters) and Ⅻ (Unicode Roman numerals), depending on the font you are using. Plus, Unicode does allow for some of the more ancient and rarer numerical forms (e.g., ↅ) N.B. Some of these rarer forms may not display on all internet browsers.

Please see our handout on Roman numerals for more information.

Capitals

  • Ⅰ (one): 2160
  • Ⅱ (two): 2161
  • Ⅲ (three): 2162
  • Ⅳ (four): 2163
  • Ⅴ (five): 2164
  • Ⅵ (six): 2165
  • Ⅶ (seven): 2166
  • Ⅷ (eight): 2167
  • Ⅸ (nine): 2168
  • Ⅹ (ten): 2169
  • Ⅺ (eleven): 216A
  • Ⅻ (twelve): 216B
  • Ⅼ (fifty): 216C
  • Ⅽ (one hundred): 216D
  • Ⅾ (five hundred): 216E
  • M (one thousand): 216F

Archaic / Rare Forms

  • ↅ (six): 2185
  • ↆ (fifty): 2186
  • Ↄ (reversed one hundred): 2183
  • ↀ (one thousand): 2180
  • ↁ (five thousand): 2181
  • ↂ (ten thousand): 2182
  • ↇ (fifty thousand): 2187
  • ↈ (one hundred thousand): 2188

Minuscules

  • ⅰ (one): 2170
  • ⅱ (two): 2171
  • ⅲ: 2172
  • ⅳ (four): 2173
  • ⅴ (five): 2174
  • ⅵ (six): 2175
  • ⅶ (seven): 2176
  • ⅷ (eight): 2177
  • ⅸ (nine): 2178
  • ⅹ (ten): 2179
  • ⅺ (eleven): 217A
  • ⅻ (twelve): 217B
  • ⅼ (fifty): 217C
  • ⅽ (one hundred): 217D
  • ⅾ (five hundred): 217E
  • ⅿ (one thousand): 217F

Ordinals with Roman Numerals

Sometimes one will come across Roman numerals written with suffixes to indicate ordinal numbers, e.g., Ⅰa. A common example of this is the Ecclesiastical shorthand for the parts of the Summa Thœlogiæ, e.g. Ia-IIæ, which stands for Prima Secundæ. This corresponds to the suffixes -st, -nd, rd, and -th in English orthography, e.g., 1st. As in English, these suffixes can be written in superscript, e.g., 1st, Ⅰa. In word processors (Microsoft Word, Google Word, etc.), it is usually easiest to use their built-in superscript feature. In HTML, use the superscript tags around the text to be superscripted:

				
					<sup></sup>
				
			

For example,

				
					[U+2160]<sup>[U+00E6]</sup>
				
			

will appear on a webpage as Ⅰæ.

Unicode Hex for IPA Symbols Used in Ecclesiastical Latin Transcriptions

As with any spoken language, Latin words can be transcribed into international phonetic alphabet (IPA) notation. Unlike natural languages, in which one letter symbol (grapheme) may have more than one pronunciation, each IPA symbol (glyph) has only one correct pronunciation as determined by international convention. Conventional language instruction typically uses approximations in one’s native language to serve as guides for pronouncing the target language (e.g., “a” as in father). This method is susceptible to the vast variations in local dialects and accents. The ability to learn to pronounce letters and words as they were meant to be pronounced, rather than as approximations to one’s own language is key to sounding like a native speaker.

Although every Latin instructor and text book seem to have their own slight differences in pronunciation rules, the following symbols should suffice to transcribe most of them. IPA allows for “wide” (general) to “narrow” (very specific) transcriptions. For our purposes, wide transcriptions are sufficient and will be used throughout VSI literature. VSI plans to publish our own pronunciation guide in the near future.

The use of unicode for IPA can be important because IPA makes use of many Latin characters, which change form based on the font. For example, the letter “a” has two minuscule forms: a and a, depending on the font family. Unintentionally transformations in transcribed text can usually be avoided by typing them using an IPA keyboard or Unicode.

These charts are arranged according to the similtudes of the glyphs to the graphemes of the Latin alphabet.

Consonants

IPA Glyph: Unicode Hex Number (IPA Phonetic Description)

  • b: 0062 (Voiced bilabial plosive)
  • d: 0064 (Voiced alveolar plosive)
  • d͡z (preferred): 0064 + 0361 + 007A / ʣ: 02A3 (Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate)
  • d͡ʒ (preferred): 0064 + 0361 + 0292 / ʤ: 02A4 (Voiced postalveolar affricate)
  • f: 0066 (Voiceless labiodental fricative)
  • ɡ: 0261 (Voiced velar plosive)
  • h: 0068 (Voiceless glottal fricative)
  • j: 006A (Voiced palatal approximant)
  • k: 006B (Voiceless velar plosive)
  • kᵂ: 006B + 1D42 (Labilized voiceless velar plosive)
  • l: 006C (Voiced alveolar lateral approximant)
  • m: 006D (Voiced bilabial nasal)
  • n: 006E (Voiced alveolar nasal)
  • ŋ: 014B (Voiced velar nasal)
  • ɲ: 0272 (Voiced palatal nasal)
  • p: 0070 (Voiceless bilabial plosive)
  • r: 0072 (Voiced alveolar trill)
  • s: 0073 (Voiceless alveolar sibilant)
  • ʃ: 0283 (Voiceless postalveolar fricative)
  • t: 0074 (Voiceless alveolar plosive)
  • t͡s (preferred): 0074 + 0361 + 0073 / ʦ: 02A6 (Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate)
  • t͡ʃ (preferred): 0074 + 0361 + 0283 / ʧ: 02A7 (Voiceless postalveolar affricate)
  • v: 0076 (Voiced labiodental fricative)
  • w: 0077 (Voiced labial-velar approximant)
  • z: 007A (Voiced alveolar fricative)

Vowels

IPA Glyph: Unicode Hex Number (IPA Phonetic Description)

  • a: 0061 (Open front unrounded vowel)
  • ɛ: 025B (Open-mid front unrounded vowel)
  • e: 0065 (Close-mid front unrounded vowel)
  • i: 0069 (Close front unrounded vowel)
  • o: 006F (Close-mid back rounded vowel)
  • u: 0075 (Close back rounded vowel)

Diphthongs

  • ai̯: 0061 + 0069 + 032F
  • au̯: 0061 + 0075 + 032F
  • ei̯: 0065 + 0069 + 032F
  • eu̯: 0065 + 0075 + 032F
  • ui̯: 0075 + 0069 + 032F

IPA Diacritics and Prosody

  • ˈ: 02C8 (Primary stress – placed before the stressed syllable)
  • ˌ: 02CC (Secondary stress – placed before the stressed syllable)
  • . (normal period): 002E (Vowel hiatus)
  • ː: 02D0 (Long vowel – placed after the vowel)
  • ̈ : 0308 (Diaeresis – indicates that a second vowel is pronounced separately from a proceeding one.)

IPA Brackets

  • […]: 005B & 005D (Square brackets – phonetic notation, e.g., a phonetic transcription of a word)
  • /…/: 002F (Slashes – abstract phonemic notation, e.g., a single sound)
  • {…}: 007B & 007D (Braces – prosodic phonemic notation)
  • ⟨…⟩: 27E8 & 27E9 (Angle Brackets – grapheme, i.e. text)